History of Trade
One of the indicators of the development process of the 19th century of the Ottoman economy was the chambers of commerce. The attempt to establish trade chambers serving the development of domestic and foreign trade has come to an end in the last months of the period of Abdulaziz (1861-1876). But the Dersaadet (Istanbul) Chamber of Commerce was active only in 1882. Prior to Dersaadet Chamber of Commerce there was a “Trade and Agricultural Assembly” as a similar organization in the Ottoman Country. By a decree dated 25 June 1875, this council was assigned its tasks in the fields of agriculture, industry and commerce, and the Assembly was given the task of establishing “Agriculture and Trade Societies”. After a while, this assembly was abolished and his task was transferred to newly established industry, trade and agricultural directorates.
The first chamber of commerce in Turkey was settled in İnebolu in 1870 to respond to the special needs of a French company that exports to its home country, but after a while this company, which was economically and legally deprived, was dispersed. In the same year, “Austria-Hungary Chamber of Commerce and Industry” was established in Istanbul to oversee the interests of Austrian and Hungarian traders. “Trade and Agriculture Ministry” was established in 1876 to fill some gaps in trade. An “Agriculture and Trade Association” was opened with the support of the “Trade and Agricultural Assembly” affiliated to the Ministry. The Tarsus Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1879) was established as a result of the need to export the cotton exported to Çukurova, which responds to a part of the cotton requirement of the rapidly developing European textile industry in the 1800s, and to see the functions of similarities in Europe. The first room officially organized in our country is Istanbul Chamber of Commerce. As mentioned above, the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce was opened in 1882 at the initiative of the Ministry of Trade and Agriculture.
Until 1910, when the first legal regulations on trade and industry chambers were made, the chambers were organized under the name of “Chambers of Commerce, Agriculture and Industry” with the order of the Ministry of Trade and Agriculture. In this period, Trabzon (1884), Muğla (1885), Izmir, Antalya and Mersin (1886), Balıkesir, Bursa (1889), Adana (1884), Eskisehir (1895), Kayseri, Siverek (1896), Giresun, Antep ), Fethiye (1901), Bafra (1903), Isparta (1905), Bartın (1906), Samsun (1907), Manisa, Silifke and Sivas (1908) were established. The “Chamber of Trade and Industry Chamber of Commerce and Industry” issued on May 31, 1910 and the chambers of agriculture were excluded from the list, and chambers of commerce and industry were brought to the status of only members of trade and industry. The innovation brought by the organization in terms of regulation is the possibility of the managers to be selected by the merchants and industrialists who are members of the market. Within the scope of the statute, the following laws were enacted: Afyon (1910), Corum (1911), Izmit (1913), Kırşehir, Ödemiş (1914), Bayburt (1915), Zonguldak (1919), Edirne, Elazig (1920), Milas Erzurum, Kilis (1922), Aksaray, Niğde, Burhaniye, Çankırı, Artvin, Çanakkale, Fatsa and İnegöl chambers of Commerce and Industry (1923) were established.
The most important organizational development was provided by the Law on Chambers of Commerce and Industry dated 22 April 1925 and numbered 655. Law no. 655 and the statute put into effect on this law have linked the establishment and functioning of rooms to specific principles. Another important innovation brought by the law is that the rooms are accepted as professional organizations with legal personality. The law obliged those engaged in trade and industry to enter the chamber. Another important aspect of the legislation is that it takes the work areas of the rooms from local to local conditions.
Trade and Industry Chambers, Tradesmen Chambers and Trade Stocks Law No. 4355, dated 18.11.1943, abolished the law no. Law no. 4355 removed the number of organs in the rooms. Law No. 5373 of Tradesmen Associations and Tradesmen Associations dated April 25, 1949, tradesmen and traders of small merchants and industrialists from the chambers to establish an association. By law dated 8.3.1950 and numbered 5590, chambers, stock exchanges and the union have gained their present status.
Until the enactment of the Law No. 4355 dated 1943, commercial stock exchanges established and working as a branch of the chambers of commerce and industry were able to organize themselves as separate entities together with this law. 5590 numbered legislation in the current regime of the stock market has found a rapid development environment.
In order to better represent the rights and interests of its members over time, the chambers and stock exchanges that need to be gathered under one umbrella, the existing 32 chambers of commerce and industry, 8 chambers of commerce and 1 chamber of industry after the enactment of TOBB Establishment Law No. 5590 on 8 March 1950 and representatives of 20 commodity exchanges came together to establish the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey on 7 February 1952.